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Pycnogenol & The Edge – A Heavy Emhpasis on Science, Consistent Research and Development.

At Biocellular Therapeutics, a large component of our time is dedicated to scientific research and development of our products. In cooperation with sports medical scientists, we have been able to develop, test and prove that our unique products in fact work, and are incredibly safe to use. Our relationship with prominent Australian and International Universities and Colleges has stemmed from our open and transparent nature.Below you will find several journal article studies conducted on our products in recent years from various organisations and institutions. Please take some time to read through this evidence to help you make an informed opinion on our unique products, so you can then discover for yourself the limitless potential you can achieve.
Lact-Away is a natural nutritional supplement
The Edge is a natural nutritional supplement that enhances exercise performance because of its antioxidant activity and circulatory benefits through the management of the immune effects associated with stressful exercise. The Edge’s key ingredients are water-soluble antioxidants and it is a non-steroidal natural product utilised in endurance training. The chemical composition of The Edge will protect the exercising body against the oxidative damage that is resultant from the free radicals that are produced and accumulates during periods of strenuous exercise.

The continued physical activity undertaken will increase the production of free radicals and this will increase the oxidative damage in tissues such as muscle, blood and liver. The outcome of such build up in oxygen radicals is that there is a reduction in the muscle’s ability to repair from such strenuous activity. The two fold result is both a significant reduction in performance in the immediate exercise bout and a less efficient recovery for any subsequent
exercise undertaken. The protection of tissues from oxidative damage would facilitate increased training efforts and therefore allow for the improvement in endurance due to increase training periods being sustained.

The Edge as an anti-oxidant acts as a scavenger for these free radicals. The powerful antioxidant activity is a consequence of the complex composition of the product. Accompanied with this are other systemic benefits. It has been shown that the chemistry in The Edge inhibits both stress-induced and exercise-induced platelet aggregation which reduces clot formation in the blood vessels. Therefore an improved blood flow in the blood vessels is achieved. Other studies have shown that The Edge chemistry can strengthen capillaries which will improve the delivery of important energy nutrients to the muscles.

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The free radicals that develop during strenuous exercise can inhibit the immune response previously described and as a consequence, there is an increase in both upper respiratory tract infection and milder causes of fatigue that decrease the performance of an athlete. Free radicals may provide the tissue damage that is responsible for many degenerative diseases such as arthrosclerosis, arthritis and cancer. It has also been attributed to the process of ageing itself.

The undertaking of physical activity significantly increases oxygen consumption by 10 to 20 fold above basal requirements. With an increase in oxygen demand the number of developing free radicals increases accordingly. This mechanism can provide serious consequences to the cells of muscle and liver. Cells do initiate some form of chemical protection but the continued insult is not easily managed by the cellular infrastructure. Free radicals therefore damage the cells and diminish their performance. It is has been demonstrated that during exhaustive exercise free radicals may rupture complete muscle cells.

The Edge will not provide any increased substrate for metabolic performance but it will counteract the deleterious effects of free radical production and subsequently improve vessel blood flow. These two mechanisms function to optimise performance. The Edge will inactivate the free radicals to minimise any pathological damage. Its chemistry will recycle and protect vitamins C and E further enhancing the super anti-oxidant activity of the composition. This function will in turn minimise the previously described impact of the stress of chronic and exhaustive exercise on the immune system. The preservation of the biology of the cell allows for more production of antioxidant enzymes which significantly enhances the defence mechanism against the free radicals. This multifactorial defence mechanism defends against free radicals and will preserve the integrity of muscle cell structure as well as other cells. This protection provides maintenance of this infrastructure in increased exercise demand. The secondary immune response associated with strenuous exercise is diminished as is the fatigue response. The chemistry maintains the integrity of the cardiovascular response during exercise by improving blood flow and thus supporting an optimum supply to the muscles of nutrients and oxygen. Allied to this, is that it helps to dilate constricted blood vessels and improve the bloods rheology. An increase of secretion of human growth hormone-HGH- could be one of the mechanisms for the increased endurance observed by research groups. If HGH is not adequately supplied such medical consequences include obesity and a reduction in muscle strength. With the addition of HGH, the body produces a decrease of 18 % in fat mass and an associated increase in muscle mass of 10 %. Other physiological changes include bone density increase and an improvement in renal blood flow. It has been observed that secretion of HGH from cells has been increased after add ition of small quantities of The Edge components into these cells.

The Edge acts on platelets which form blood clots in injured tissue. When blood clots develop inside blood vessels there may be aggregation which interrupts the blood flow. The consequence of this is a coronary infarction, pulmonary embolism or stroke. The prevention of the platelet aggregation will stimulate increased blood flow during exercise and may prevent heart infarction or stroke. The Edge will also reduce blood pressure which will provide for less stress on the cardiovascular vessel walls during performance. These systemic effects allow for the vascular response to be optimised and easily maintained as the body’s physiology adapts to on-going exercise loads. The increase in exercise stress results in the constriction of blood vessels which provides for a reduced cross sectional area for the blood to flow. By providing for blood vessels to relax and an expansion of the vasculature, there is an increased cross sectional area for the blood to flow. This improved circulation results in the increased supply of oxygen and nutrients. The Edge will also elevate the production of nitric oxide which will assist in the reduction of blood pressure. The response of nitric oxide is considered one of the most important responses of the muscle in strenuous and continued exercise. The smooth muscle that surrounds the blood vessels controls the vessels diameter and as a consequence the blood
flow and pressure. During exercise, local stress hormones stimulate the smooth muscles to constrict and therefore there is a reduction in the vessel diameter and an increase in blood pressure. Nitric Oxide will initiate the relaxation of the smooth muscles.

The Edge will counteract the action of local hormones by stimulating the increase in the production of nitric oxide to expand the blood vessel wall and therefore improve blood flow within these walls. The optimal rheology reached in this transaction will provide for continued blood flow and vessel mechanics to assist with the metabolic balancing of the exercising muscle. While the muscle continues to manage the metabolism required for the maintenance of exercise, the immune response that would have been initiated to depress the exercise output is dampened. Another important consequence of The Edge is the increase of the haemopoeitic response in the bone marrow which will leads to an increased red blood cell count and greater oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.

Scientific Research

The latest study conducted on The Edge that appeared in the most current issue of the journal 'Research in Sports Medicine'
This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of an antioxidant (AO; The Edge ® containing pycnogenol) on time to fatigue (TTF). Nine trained cyclists [mean ± SD age 35 ± 10 yrs; body mass 71.6 ± 10.2 kg; VO2 peak 63 ± 11 ml/kg/min] per-formed on two separate occasions a continuous protocol of 5 min at 50% of peak power output (PPO), 8 min at 70% of PPO, and then cycled to fatigue at 95% PPO. Four hours prior to the exercise protocol, the subjects consumed the supplement or a placebo (counterbalanced, double blind protocol). Cyclists, on average, rode for 80s more in the The Edge trial than they did in the placebo trial.
There was considerable evidence (chances ≥ 94.5%) for substantial positive treatment effects for TTF and the other performance related variables (excluding [BLa] at 95% PPO). Other studies are necessary to confirm these results and identify the mechanisms underlying the observed effects.

Or read the journal here.

A study on The Edge presented at the 2010 Exercise and Sports Science Australia Conference, 9-11th April, Gold Coast, Australia.
Acute antioxidant supplementation improves fatigue resistance during a single bout of high volume free weight training.
Ackerman James 1 Trapp E Gail 1 McNaughton R Lars 2 and Bentley J David 3
1 Health and Exercise Science, School of Medical Science, University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney, AUSTRALIA
2 Department of Sport, Health and Exercise Science , University of Hull, UNITED KINGDOM.
3 School of Public Health, Adelaide University, Adelaide, AUSTRALIA
Correspondence: bentley.dj@gmail.com

Introduction: Adaptations in muscular strength with resistance training (RT) are typically associated with cumulative exposure to forceful repetitive muscle contractions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during RT have been implicated in evoking skeletal muscular fatigue.Oliogomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) are a potent natural antioxidant extract which have been shown to improve endurance performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a new antioxidant supplement (The Edge©) containing OPC on muscle force generating capacity during RT
in healthy moderately trained males.

Methods: Fifteen trained males (mean age 23±4 yrs; body mass 86 ±6kg) participated in a double blind placebo controlled experiment. Subjects were assessed for three repetition maximum (3RM) strength and this was extrapolated to determine a 1RM. After a familiarisation session the subjects performed two test sessions consuming either a placebo (P) or supplement (S) four hours before exercise. Each subject performed six sets of ten repetitions, set at a 12 RM load. Power output (PO) (W) and velocity (m∙s-1) during the training was measured through a GymAware portable measuring device (Kinetic Performance technology, Australia).

Results: Accumulated PO was significantly (p<0.01) greater during the S trial compared to the P (6740 ± 5.9 vs 6493 ± 17.1W). PO was also significantly (p<0.01) higher during each set in S compared to P. Velocity was significantly higher during S compared to P (0.681 ± 0.005 vs 0.656 ± 0.011; p <0.01). Post exercise blood lactate concentration (6.3 ± 1.7 vs 7.19 ± 2.5) and RPE (16.0 ± 0.8 vs 17.7 ± 1.2) was not significantly different between S and P.
Conclusions: Ingestion of lactaway prior to a single bout of RT appears to blunt the decrease in force generating capacity that occurs during an acute bout of RT, this may be beneficial in producing more quality work during a single RT session.

Read the Report Here

Drug Clearance Test for the Product Lact-Away.
Drug Clearance Test for the Product Lact-Away. HFL Supplement Screen.
The Effect of Antioxidant Supplementation on Fatigue During Exercise.
Abstract:
This study compared serum pyridine levels (NAD+/NADH) in trained (n=6) and untrained (n=7) subjects after continuous progressive exercise at 50%, 70% then 95% of physical work capacity until fatigue (TTF) after consuming a placebo or antioxidant (AO) cocktail (Lactaway©). An increase of 17% and 26% in TTF were observed in AO as compared to familiarisation (p = 0.019) and placebo (p = 0.037). This was accompanied by a significant increase in serum NAD+ levels (P<0.05) in the PYC supplemented group post exercise. The increases in NAD+ and improved endurance, reflects lower oxidative stress induced suppression of aerobic respiration.

More Here Or visit the journal ‘Nutrients’ here.

Oligomeric Proanthocyanidin (OPC) supplementation and how it improved endurance performance in trained athletes
Abstract:

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of a single dose of The Edge® (a supplement containing oligomeric proanthocyanidins) on time to fatigue (TTF) and related physiological responses during intense endurance exercise in athletes. Nine trained cyclists [mean ± SD age 35 ± 10 yrs; body mass 71.6 ± 10.2 kg; VO peak 63 ± 11 ml/kg/min] voluntarily participated in the study. Each subject performed a progressive exercise test to exhaustion for determination of peak power output(PPO). On two separate occasions the subjects performed a continuous, step-wise protocol consisting of 5 min at 50% of PPO (warm up), 8 min at 70% of PPO and then cycled to fatigue at 95% PPO. Four hours prior to the exercise protocol, the subjects consumed 150 ml of Lactaway or a placebo (counterbalanced, double blind protocol). Inferential statistics were based on the chances of a substantial positive effect. The mean TTF for the placebo trial was 494 ± 213 s, compared to 574 ± 265 s for the The Edge trial. There was considerable evidence (chances ≥94.5%) for substantial positive treatment effects for TTF and the other performance related variables (VO2, economy, [BLa]), although the effect of Lactaway on [BLa] at 95% PPO was unclear. The mean improvement was 16% for TTF and between 5% and 24% for VO2, economy, and blood lactate concentration (excluding [BLa] at 95% PPO). Future investigations are necessary to confirm the efficacy of The Edge on physical performance, as well as identifying the underlying physiological mechanisms for these performance effects.

Read The Full Report here.

This report was also presented at a recent Symposium to the Sports Science Community.

Pycnogenol® for Sports Nutrition

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To learn more about pycnogenol and the research into how it benefits athletes please visit http://www.pycnogenol.com/
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